Albanian opposition to the “Three World Theory” split the anti-revisionist movement in the late 1970s and was ideologically rooted in a reading of what constituted the modern world as found in the orthodox analysis supplied and available from Lenin onwards. In his “Reflections on China” Enver Hoxha wrote: “We are opposed to the views of the Communist Party of China about the ‘third world’, because they are anti-Marxist, revisionist views. […] The main points of our opposition to the Chinese are over issues which are closely linked with one another: over the question of the ‘third world’, over the stand which should be maintained towards the two superpowers, and over ‘proletarian internationalism’, that is, over the strengthening of the unity of the Marxist-Leninist communist parties.” Concern about China’s foreign policy predated the 1976 Congress report and publication of the lengthy editorial published on July 7, 1977 in Zëri i Popullit, entitled “The Theory and Practice of Revolution”.
ON THE CHARACTER OF OUR EPOCH was published in 1982 and consisted of quotes from articles written by Lenin and Stalin. The Preface by the Albanian “8 Nentori” Publishing House can be read as explaining the contemporary foreign policy themes and stand at that time defended by the Albanian Party. This selection was said to have had contemporary significance relating to “the fundamental problems of our times, the major questions concerning the world revolutionary liberation movement”.
The present collection comprises parts of V. I. Lenin’s and J. V. Stalin’s works which dwell on the character of our epoch and the strategy and tactics of the revolution. In these works, the fundamental problems of our times, the major questions concerning the world revolutionary Iiberation movement, are subjected to a penetrating dialectical analysis.
The works included in this collection follow in chronological order.
In V. I. Lenin’s works of the first revolutionary period “What the ‘Friends of the Peoples’ Are and How They Fight the Social-Democrats”, “What Is to Be Done?” etc, a series of programmatic theses and tasks in the revolutionary struggle of the Russian proletariat, are formulated. In his work “Two Tactics of Social- Democracy in the Democratic Revolution” Lenin ideologically smashed the petty-bourgeois tactical platform of Mensheviks and international opportunism, provided arguments of genius for the Bolshevik tactics, worked out the tactical fundamentals of the Marxist party of the new type, armed the working class for the further development of the revolution and laid the foundations of the revolutionary tactics.
Of particular significance are the works “Two Worlds” and “Differences in the European Working Class Movement” which constitute an exposure of opportunism in the European working-class movement and the traitorous policy of the leaders of the Second International. A series of writings as e.g. “The Position and the Tasks of the Socialist International”, “The War and the Russian Social-Democracy” etc, are dedicated to the struggle of Bolshevism against opportunism in the Russian and international working-class movement against Trotskyite Liquidators, Socialist-Revolutionaries and the opportunists of the Second International. In the work “The Right of Nations to Self-Determination” the author provided argument for and developed the Bolshevik programme of the national question, expounding on the concrete historical way of how this question should be treated.
In a number of works written in the period 1914- 1915, as e.g. “Socialism and War” etc, V. I. Lenin raised the banner of struggle against imperialist war and internationa1 social-chauvinism, laid the foundations of the theory and tactics of the Bolshevik Party on the question of war, peace and the revolution.
In the article “Opportunism, and the Collapse of the Second International”, V. I. Lenin tears the mask of apostasy and of the betrayal by the opportunist leaders of the Second International and the West- European socialist parties, and defines the tasks and tactics of the revolutionary Social-Democracy in the struggle against international opportunism.
In his work “Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism” V. I. Lenin propounds his ideas of genius on imperialism as the highest and last stage of the development of capitalism; as monopoly parasitic and senile capitalism, as moribund capitalism, as an unprecedented increase of exploitation, oppression and reaction in all the fields and as the eve of the proletarian revolution. On the basis of this analysis Lenin formulates a new theoretical thesis on the possibility of the triumph of socialism first in one capitalist country, and on the impossibility of its triumph in all countries simultaneously.
In the article “A Caricature of Marxism and Imperialist Economism” V. I. Lenin criticizes the anti- Marxist attitude of the anti-party Bukharin-Pyatakov group and explains the Bolshevik programme on the national question in the new historical conditions.
In the work “The State and Revolution”, V. I. Lenin developed and defended the Marxist theory of the state against distortion and vulgarization by the opportunists, while in the work “The Proletarian Revolution and Renegade Kautsky” denounces the opportunism and obsiquiousness of Kautsky and other leaders of the Second International towards the imperialists.
In the work “Left- Wing Communism – an Infantile Disorder” V. I. Lenin showed that international opportunism is the chief enemy within the working class movement and stigmatized the leaders of the Second International as collaborators of imperialist banditism.
Treating the character of our epoch in his work “Two Camps” J. V. Stalin says:
«The world has definitely and irrevocably split into two camps: the camp of imperialism and the camp of socialism. The struggle between these two camps constitutes the hub of present-day affairs, determines of whole substance of the present home and foreign policies of the leaders of the old and the new worlds.»
- V. Stalin’s major work “The Foundations of Leninism” is dedicated to the theoretical argumentation of Leninism as the further development of Marxism of the epoch of imperialism and proletarian revolutions.
It played a very important role in the struggle of the Party against Trotskyists and all other enemies of Bolshevism.
In “Political Report of the Central Committee, (The Fourteenth Congress of the CPSU(b), in The International Situation and the Tasks of the Communist Parties” and in other works, the author proves with all-round argument the soundness of the general line of the Bolshevik Party and denounces the defeatist attitude of Trotskyists and Zinovievists who advocated the restoration of capitalism.
In the works “Concerning Questions of Leninism” and in other works J. V. Stalin upholds the decisions of the Fourteenth Congress of the CPSU (b), exposes the malicious distortions by Zinoviev – Kamenev group, discloses the attempts of New Opposition to arouse in the Party the feeling of mistrust in the triumph of socialism in the USSR and their attempts to substitute Trotskyism for Leninism. J. V. Stalin lays special emphasis on the absolute necessity of preserving and strengthening the organs of the dictatorship of the proletariat in the conditions of the existing capitalist encirclement and the danger of intervention.
In his writing “Notes on Contemporary Themes” and in other works J. V. Stalin, besides other problems lays stress on the unity and indivisibility of the national and international tasks of the socialist revolution; he defines the line of the party in the field of foreign policy in the conditions of the threat of a new aggression against USSR and sets the new tasks for strengthening the defence potential of the Soviet Union.
In the political reports to the Sixteenth, Seventeenth and Eighteenth Congresses of the CPSU (b) J. V. Stalin- makes a detailed analysis of the economic crisis of world capitalism and points out the exacerbation of contradictions in the capitalist system, and indicates the superiority of the socialist system over the capitalist system. J. V. Stalin treats the aggravation of the political situation in the capitalist countries, the relations among these countries, as well as the preparations for a new world war by the imperialists.
The teachings of V. I. Lenin and J. V. Stalin on the character of our epoch and on the revolutionary strategy and tactics are valid even in our days. The present-day capitalist society is developed according to the same objective laws which Marx, Engels, Lenin, and Stalin have discovered.
«Properly applied» as Comrade Enver Hoxha has put it, «Marxism-Leninism and its immortal principles will inevitably bring about the destruction of world capitalism and the triumph of the dictatorship of the proletariat, by means of which the working class will build socialism and march towards communism.»
THE «8 NENTORI” PUBLISHING HOUSE – 1982