|To fly our red flag in Peru 2: Chronology|
|1980||The PCP , referred to as the Shining Path began military operations in Ayacucho (May)|
|1982||PCP declaration that Maoism was a new stage of the ideology of the proletariat|
|1986||PCP inmates riot in Lima prisons; military kills 287|
|1992||PCP prisoners uprising in the Canto Grande prison. In May of 1992 the Peruvian government stormed the Canto Grande maximum security prison killing and wounding dozens of PCP prisoners; many were killed after surrendering to government forces (May)|
|1992||On July 16, 1992, PCP guerrillas detonated a car bomb in Lima’s district of Miraflores, killing 25 and injuring dozens known as. The Tarata bombing.|
|1992||On September 12, 1992, El Grupo Especial de Inteligencia (GEIN) captured Guzmán and several Shining Path leaders in an apartment above a dance studio in the Surquillo district of Lima.
(October) “Sentenced to life imprisonment” by a military court in a summary trial shortly after his arrest. Guzmán to serve his term in solitary confinement in a specially built naval prison in El Callao, west of Lima.
|When he was exhibited in a cage by those who had captured him two weeks earlier, Guzman Supporters of maintaining PPW reaffirm, as the international Maoist movement has always affirmed, that the last valid instructions of Chairman Gonzalo concerning the People’s War in Peru are those given in his speech from where he was caged on September 24, 1992. In this he affirmed the need to continue and intensify the People’s War, and he stated that his arrest did not constitute a defeat but just a bend in the road.
“The People’s War Will Be Victorious, ‘You Shall See It!'” Speech from Headquarters of the Anti-terrorist Police of Peru, September 24, 1992
|1992||The International Committee to Defend the Life of Abimael Guzman formed (November)
The mobilizing cry was: Move Heaven and Earth to Defend the Life of Chairman Gonzalo!
We Need Comrade Gonzalo at His Post, in the Forefront of the Revolution in Peru and the International Communist Movement! Fight for His Liberation!
|1992||On October 20, 1992, in the prison on El Frontón Island, Guzmán asked the Navy officers guarding him to tell the government that he wanted to begin peace negotiations. (October)|
|1993||Oct 19, in prison Sendero leader Guzman gave a speech to imprisoned PCP militants calling for a peace accord and an end to the violence. Outside many people were sceptical of this speech and senderistas blamed the government for forcing Guzman to make such a speech as a reactionary hoax of psychological warfare.
“Take Up and Fight for the New Decision and the New Definition” [Asumir – Combatir por la Nueva Decision y Nueva Definicion or Asumir in Spanish].
|1993||Revolutionary Internationalist Movement in 1993 adopting Marxism-Leninism-Maoism. (December)|
|Other PCP leaders, after meeting Guzman, wrote Letters going beyond a call for a peace accord, in a letter, signed by four of his lieutenants on Oct. 28, called on guerrillas across the nation to suspend armed actions, “making a maximum effort to avoid such acts and denouncing them roundly and immediately.”
Public emergence of so-called Peace Accord condemned as revisionist and capitulationist ROL, Right Opportunist Line, by those who rejected the thesis that the author of the political line advocating the quest for a peace agreement was Chairman Gonzalo himself. (October 1993)
Comment: in any revolutionary movement is it not standing orders that those outside should reject the proposal made by the imprisoned party leaders. That rank is lost when captured?
Some PCP-SL supporters abroad spread the attitude that the most serious problem was not the peace accords line but those who refused to accept the “hoax” theory. That there wasn’t a two line struggle within the PCP as the Right Opportunist Line went against all the party had previously taught and acted upon.
|Imprisoned PCP leaders supported the initiative started by “President Gonzalo” and his partner, Elena Iparraguirre:
“As militants of the Communist Party of Peru, subject to its leadership and the Central
Committee, and with full awareness and understanding of the undeniable historic need, we support the letters written by President Gonzalo and Comrade Miriam that were sent to the President of the Republic, Engineer Alberto Fujimori Fujimori, asking him to reach a Peace Accord whose application would end the war that the country has lived through for more than thirteen years. We accept this petition as our own and reiterate it.”
Two-line struggle forced a schism within the PCP-SL divided into three groups: prisoners and activists who followed Guzman and see the war as a glorious but finished, with large parts of the organization acceding to the call for peace talks, due to the arrest of the central committee; there are those in the Jungle Huallaga and are led by Artemio and others located in the Apurimac Ene River Valley (VRAE) and are led by “Joseph”, Víctor Quispe Palomino. Those headed by Joseph in the VRAE, eventually reject the authority of Guzman or the PCP. Sometimes referred to as the Left Opportunist line. Whereas Artemio, proclaiming loyalty to the pre1992 positions and writings of Guzman, including his speech from the cage.
|1994||Some 6,000 “Shining Path guerrillas” surrender to the authorities.|
|1995||The Committee of the Revolutionary Internationalist Movement (CoRIM) issued a call to “Rally to the Defence of Our Red Flag Flying in Peru!”
This call made public the conclusions of a investigation and study of the two-line struggle in the PCP and put forward support for the Central Committee of the PCP in carrying forward the People’s War and its opposition to the call for a peace accord which would have “represented a compromise of the fundamental interests of the people and an abandonment of the People’s War and the revolutionary road.”
|1995||Magie Clavo Peralta, a.k.a.”Nancy” arrested March 22, 1995. In September, TV broadcasted an interview with Clavo from inside her cell. In that interview she issued a call to “struggle for the peace agreement,” denouncing the leaders of the People’s War as “traitors and usurpers.” Simultaneously, Clavo “self-criticised” her former position, and also alleged having “met with Chairman Gonzalo.”
Guzmán sent a message to militants by way of his father-in-law, Carlos La Torre Cassrdenas, who lived in Sweden, proclaiming Clavo’s change of position as “a success of the Party, of the proletariat line led by President Gonzalo and the Central Committee,” and calling for “the Party to officially and publicly ask the government to begin direct talks.
|1995||Peru grants amnesty for members of the police and military implicated in human rights abuses since 1980|
|1999||José and Raul Quispe brothers, staged a coup in July 1999 and take over the PCP VRAE-based Central Committee.
This “left opportunistic line” is condemned ~ “which handed over to the reactionary Armed Forces the Central Committee responsible and other of its members in July 1999, headed by the Quispe Palomino clan, true” warlords” and which usurping part of the Main Party Committee had established their “own fiefdom” and with the pretext of carrying out a “national resistance war” they capitulate to imperialism, the great bourgeoisie and landlords.”
|1999||Feliciano was arrested in 1999. Oscar Ramirez (Comrade Feliciano, who assumed party leadership after Gonzalo’s capture), was a key leader of the opposition to the peace accords line.
In a letter to Peru’s president and in court in May 2004, Oscar Ramirez said he had decided that Peru’s present “democracy is the best system” and that it had been wrong to launch a revolutionary war in the first place, criticising Chairman Gonzalo more for that rather than for calling a halt to it.
|2002||The demands raised by CSRP are:
LONG LIVE THE PEOPLE’S WAR IN PERU!
DEFEND THE LIFE OF CHAIRMAN GONZALO! END HIS ISOLATION!
DEMAND THAT CHAIRMAN GONZALO BE PRESENTED LIVE BEFORE THE WORLD PRESS!
|2002||Peruvian authorities accuse exiled former president Alberto Fujimori of treason.
Former intelligence chief Vladimiro Montesinos sentenced to nine years in prison for corruption. (July)
|2003||Vladimiro Montesinos sentenced to further five and eight-year jail sentences for abuse of power, embezzlement (March-May)|
|2003||Guzmán’s conviction was overturned by a constitutional court|
|2003||Truth and Reconciliation commission report published|
|2006||Guzman retried by a civilian court that likewise sentenced him to life in prison|
|2006||The last issue of A WORLD TO WIN #32 (2006) carried the most extensive explanation from the RCP,USA dominated RIM, including its analysis of the two line struggle ;
“Chairman Gonzalo’s conduct in the course of this current trial has added even greater weight to the serious and concurring evidence from many different sources over the years that he is very likely to have been the source of the call to end the war.”
|2006||Letters received in April 2006 by prominent supporters of the International Emergency Committee to Defend the Life of Abimael Guzman (IEC) abroad, signed by Crespo and Iparraguirre, repeated references, written in other correspondence and statements over the years, to “the strategic turn and the political solution that we had been proposing since ‘92”.
While the Shining Path had carried out scattered attacks since 2000, the organization’s threat to the state was much diminished. In 2006, the guerrillas’ ranks were estimated at 300 members and located in remote rural Peru.
|2009||Former President Alberto Fujimori is sentenced to 25 years in jail for ordering killings and kidnappings by security forces. (April)|
|2009||De Puno y Letra, its title has a double meaning of both “Handwritten” and “By Word and Fist,” written by Abimael Guzmán compiled by Elena Iparraguirre, and smuggled out of prison.
Iparraguirre, 62, serving a life sentence said that “war behind us” and Guzman now seeks “a political solution to the problems of people’s war, the general amnesty and national reconciliation.”
Publication of this book was on the seventeenth anniversary of his capture (12 September 1992), in an edition of 1,000 copies. This book contains 408 pages of documents, part of his autobiography and his legal defense, a defense politically conceived, and included are the letters he sent to former President Alberto Fujimori (1990-2000) requesting the start of “peace talks”. (October)
|2010||Guzmán was finally allowed to marry his longtime lover and former high-ranking member Elena Iparraguirre
|2011||Guzman’s lawyers submitted 360,000 signatures to register as a new political party, Movadef. The Movement for General Amnesty and National Reconciliation that calls for the release of Guzman. The electoral authority denied the registration on the grounds the organization advocated terrorism.|
|2012||Soldiers capture the last Central Committee member Comrade Artemio, who was badly injured in fighting with government forces. Artemio, 50, whose given name was Florindo Eleuterio Flores-Hala operated out of the Upper Huallaga Valley.
“Artemio wanted a truce and a general amnesty for both sides, he told us. After 30 years of armed struggle he would be prepared to sit down with the government of the Peruvian president, Ollanta Humala, and negotiate a unilateral ceasefire. “We just want to do political work, we’d keep a small force for our defence and we would not attack as long as we’re not attacked. .. the sticking point is his demand for the release of the Shining Path’s supreme leader, Guzman .” (The Guardian December 8th 2011)
|2013||Artemio was sentenced to life in prison|
|2014||MOVADEF is not supported by all those who self-identify as supporters of the Peruvian revolution.
“The Movement for General Amnesty and National Reconciliation (MOVADEF) is an organization set up by the right opportunist line (ROL). The ROL is composed of former members of the PCP who rejected the prolonged People’s War and called for disarmament; they are the liquidators of the People’s War. The ROL generated MOVADEF thanks to the work and support of the SIN. The only lawyer associated with Chairman Gonzalo today heads MOVADEF. MOVADEF is directly a tool set up and put in place by the imperialists in their counterinsurgency program.”
PCM: To defend the life of Chairman Gonzalo is to defend Maoism! October 25, 2017
Finally, the reaction with the ROL´s help infiltrated an agent in the PPM – Peru People´s Movement – and tried to usurp it, but after a long struggle the reaction was crushed, denounced and condemned, it has only been able to usurp the “red sun” website, from where they are trying generate confusion regarding the task that corresponds to the Communists in Peru, cynically repeating that it represents a supposed “Central Committee” and their “Regional committees”. They even have the nerve to publish the “actions” made by rats of the ROL in the Huallaga that are to pressure for better surrendering conditions and the “actions” of ROL headed by “the rat Jose”, as actions of the CPP. This aims to show a false CPP, the non-existence of leadership problems, etc.., this means blinding the eyes of the revolutionary. All a reactionary hoax of psychological warfare in order to prevent the completion of the pending task of the general reorganization of the CPP and prevent the people´s war from conquering new heights overcoming definitively the inflection and the bend on the road.
|2017||Guzman speaks out when in court again over the Tarata bombing trial. (June)
Jailed former president Alberto Fujimori is pardoned on health grounds, prompting protests. (December)